Measuring plants’ water needs; Beware: Palmer amaranth; Heat island effect slams native bees

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News and commentary for emerging green infrastructure markets GrowerTalks MagazineGreen Profit Magazine

Tuesday, August 01, 2017

Debbie Hamrick Subscribe
New Terrain

How much H2O do plants need?
Plants on the wall
Beware: Palmer amaranth
Cool neighborhoods NYC
Engineers evaluate green roofs
Native bees slammed in heat
Texas LEED resale premium
Toronto beats D.C.
Just one tree matters
Reader comments 
Worth reading

How much H2O do plants need anyway? Learning from science

 UC Davis Landscape Plant Irrigation Trials

California’s Model Water Efficiency Landscape Ordinance (MWELO) is rippling through the state’s large green industry. MWELO mandates that landscapes conserve water and it’s effective for any new or renovated landscape covering more than 500 sq. ft.

One of the ways in which the regulatory framework seeks to conserve water is through the judicious use of water on plants. Rather than simply turning the sprinklers on for a one-size-fits-all water approach, MWELO asks for an annual water budget for the landscape and a plan on how that water is to be used. Using the right amount of water for the plant in the landscape is key, rather than a one-irrigation-pattern-fits-all.

To get there, the state is implementing mandatory use of  Water Use Classification of Landscape Species (WUCOLS). WUCOLS provides evaluations of the irrigation water needs for over 3,500 types of plants, including cultivars in some instances. While 3,500 might seem like a lot of plants, it’s not. The base calculations are based primarily on horticultural experience, not science. Enter UC Davis.

University of California researchers and extension specialists Loren Oki, Karrie Reid and Jared Sisneroz are conducting UC Landscape Plant Irrigation Trials to determine just how much water landscape plants really need.

Dr. Loren Oki was in Columbus, Ohio, at AmericanHort’s Cultivate’17 garnering support for the water use trials among horticultural industry plant developers. While there, he also presented on his work. I had the good fortune of catching up with him one-on-one to learn more.

In addition to informing WUCOLS, Loren’s work is collaborative. He’s formed partnerships up the Pacific Coast in Oregon and Washington. The plan is to develop water conservation landscapes in three locations and to study their long-term performance. Not only that, but using Specialty Crops Block Grant money that flows to the California Department of Agriculture, Loren is extending the landscape water use trials to Orange County (Irvine). In the future, there will be a better understanding between Northern California and Southern California landscape plant performance under prescribed watering regimes.

Back to the UC Davis trial. It’s a two-year process. Most rain falls from December to early March. July and August are typically rain free. During Year 1, plants are established (planting is in November), where watering is “adequate” for establishment. During Year 2, plants receive irrigation based on evapotranspiration measurements. The high treatment is 80% (recommended for cool-season turf) followed by 60% (warm-season turf), 40% and the low treatment, 20%.

Irrigation is a fixed-water volume to water deeply. It’s applied beginning in late April after the trial is irrigated to field capacity, which then sets the ET “clock.” For a relative idea of how often treatments may be irrigated, the 20% treatment was watered twice from April to October (every 56 to 58 days); the 80% treatment every 12 to 18 days.


Ceanothus maritimus Valley Violet (in the photo) and Carex spissa are two species that performed well in all irrigation levels.

Trials are randomized and replicated across treatments. Plants are measured monthly when width/height are recorded and qualitative measurements of appearance, flowering and disease/pest damage is rated.

“Landscape designers and landscape architects love the trial,” Loren said. “They can see the plants in the ground as they look in the landscape.”

UC Davis and Loren's team are onto something of great interest. They’re in-demand speakers up and down California and the West, as well as Texas. Outside of the U.S., Spain has begun to use WUCOLS. And the UC Davis water landscape group is traveling to other water-stressed areas like Australia, Greece and France talking about the program.

You can access Loren’s trial results at:

Like them on Facebook and keep up with their Open House Rating Days (conducted in late July) and other news. In addition to UC Davis support, the landscape water trials work is also supported by the California Association of Nurseries and Garden Centers, Elvinia J. Slosson Horticultural Endowment, Saratoga Horticultural Research Endowment and USDA Specialty Crops Block Grant funds through the California Department of Food & Agriculture. 


Plants on the wall

Also while at Ohio, I ran into the passionate guys from sagegreenlife, an innovative green wall company. Theirs is a rockwool-based system for indoors or outdoors. If you're a plant producer interested in green wall markets and you produce species suitable for indoor or outdoor walls, reach out to their Horticulturist and Plant Design Manager, Nathan Beckner ( They’re always looking for good suppliers.


Palmer amaranth in pollinator mixes and bird seed

Palmer amaranth from the online Missouri Weed ID Guide. Consult the online i.d. guide to see photos of seed, seedlings and plants at various stages of maturity.

Be aware that if you’ve used pollinator seed mixes to install pollinator habitat, make sure you don’t have issues with Amaranthus palmeri, a herbicide-resistant super weed that’s plaguing crop fields across the country. The only control is hand weeding.

Apparently, Palmer amaranth is showing up in a large number of samples of the pollinator mixes that have been used for the USDA Conservation Reserve Program Pollinator Habitat Initiative. It’s most likely the mix has been most heavily used in agricultural areas, however, if you’re seeing weeds you’re unfamiliar with, it doesn’t hurt to check plant identity.

Palmer amaranth has also made it into millet seed used for backyard bird feeders. Be aware if it shows up in residential properties. Water fowl (geese and ducks) are known to eat Palmer amaranth. Viable seed is then deposited elsewhere in their feces.

Palmer amaranth is very prolific: One plant can produce more than a million seeds. Seeds also are long lived in the soil seed bank (five years). It pays not to let plants become established at a site.

Also see:  MU researcher finds pigweed in birdseed and pollinator mixes and The Birds, the Bees and Pigweed by Pam Smith on DTN The Progressive Farmer.


Cool Neighborhoods NYC

Check out NYC’s Cool Neighborhoods report. It advocates for plants to play a central role in cooling the city, both through shading and evapotranspiration.

“Trees and forest vegetation cool directly through shading and indirectly through evapotranspiration: a process through which water is moved from a plant’s roots to its leaves where it then evaporates through the small pores on the underside of a leaf.” Some might call plants "nature’s living air conditioners!" They run on sunlight, water and CO2. 

NYC Launches [report] to Reduce Extreme Summer Heat with Green Rooftops and Trees by Stephanie Geier on Untapped Cities.


Engineers find way to evaluate green roofs

How effective are green roofs? They seem like a good idea for improving the environment, but can performance be quantified in black and white? Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are using fragility curves, a mathematical technique traditionally used in earthquake engineering, to determine how well green infrastructure works and to communicate with urban planners, policymakers and developers.

Green roofs seem like a good idea to mitigate stormwater runoff, but a common concern regarding their use is performance variability. One challenge is figuring out how well the buildings that hold them up will respond to the increased and highly variable weight between wet and dry conditions. Another is determining how well they retain and process water given storms of different intensity, duration and frequency.

“Earthquake engineering has a similar problem because it is tough to predict what an earthquake is going to do to a building,” Reshmina William said. “Green infrastructure has a lot more variability, but that is what makes fragility curves ideal for capturing and defining the sort of dynamics involved.”

Green roofs were selected over other forms of green infrastructure because there was one on campus fitted with the instrumentation needed to measure soil moisture, rainfall amount, temperature, humidity and other variables that are plugged into the fragility curve model.

“One of the biggest barriers to the acceptance of green infrastructure is the perception of financial risk,” Reshmina said. “People want to know if the benefit of a green roof is going to justify the cost, but that risk is mitigated by knowing when an installation will be most effective and that is where our model comes in.”

The results from a single model don't yield a one-size-fits-all approach to green infrastructure evaluation, which the researchers said is one of the strengths of their technique. Adaptability across different technologies and environments is essential to any green infrastructure analysis.
Excerpted from a University of Illinois press release by Lois Yoksoulian “Engineers find way to evaluate green roofs.”

Use of Fragility Curves to Evaluate the Performance of Green Roofs by Reshmina William and Ashlynn S. Stillwell in the Journal of Sustainable Water and the Built Environment.


Native bees get slammed in heat island effect

Bumblebees, like this one on asclepias, are adversely affected at high temperatures. Carpenter bees, regarded by many as a pest, proved to be best able to function at higher temperatures in tests on 15 of the most common native bees by North Carolina State University. Photo: Elsa Youngsteadt.

A new study from North Carolina State University (NCSU) finds that common bumblebees and solitary wild bee species decline as urban temperatures increase. Carpenter bees are among the species better able to adapt.

“We looked at 15 of the most common bee species in southeastern cities and – through fieldwork and lab work – found that increasing temperatures in urban heat islands will have a negative effect on almost all of them,” says Dr. Steve Frank, NCSU.

In the laboratory portion of the study, researchers established the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) for all 15 bee species. To develop the number, they placed the bees in tubes and gradually increased the temperature until each bee became incapacitated. The most heat-tolerant species included the carpenter bees Xylocopa virginica and Ceratina strenua, with CTmax values of 50 to 51C (122 to 124F).

Some of the least heat-tolerant species included a green sweat bee (Agapostemon virescens) and a bumblebee (Bombus bimaculatus), each with a CTmax below 45C (113F). It’s worth noting that the CTmax is the temperature at which an insect is incapacitated, but the insect is adversely affected at lower temperatures and may leave a habitat or reproduce less.

To understand how laboratory results correlated to the real world, the researchers sampled bee populations 11 times over two years at 18 urban sites in Wake County, North Carolina. They found that the response of the 15 bee species studied in the lab corresponded to each species’ abundance in urban yards. In other words, the lower a species’ CTmax, the more its numbers declined with urban warming.

“This is certainly relevant for urban heat islands, but it may also help us understand potential effects of global climate change on bee species,” Elsa Youngsteadt, NCSU, says. “If species that have a lower CTmax are most sensitive to urban warming, they may also be most sensitive to warming in other environments.”
Excerpted from an NCSU news releaseHot Cities Spell Bad News for Bees

Physiological thermal limits predict differential responses of bees to urban heat-island effects by April L. Hamblin, Elsa Youngsteadt, Margarita López-Uribe and Steven D. Frank in Biology Letters. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0125


The Texas LEED resale premium

A new study by The University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) finds that new homes in Texas built to meet green building standards like LEED are worth an average of $25,000 more in resale value than conventional homes.

The Value of LEED Homes in the Texas Real Estate Market: A Statistical Analysis of Resale Premiums for Green Certification” found that homes built to LEED standards between 2008-2016 showed an 8% boost in value, while homes built to a wider range of green standards saw a 6% increase in value. The study looked at more than 3,800 green-certified homes.

More than 1.5 million residential units are currently participating in LEED in the world. USGBC’s 2015 Green Building Economic Impact report found that the residential green construction market is expected to grow from $55 million in 2015 to $100.4 million in 2018. Currently, there are more than 6,890 homes certified or pursuing LEED-certification in Texas.


Toronto pushes Washington, D.C. out of top green roof spot

The 2016 Annual Green Roof Industry Survey, Green Roofs for Healthy Cities’ (GRHC) 13th annual survey, shows double-digit growth for the green roof industry. For the first time, GRHC Corporate Members reported that Toronto, Ontario, had the most square footage of green roofing installed in 2016, with Chicago, Washington D.C. and Seattle following.

"It's no small feat that Toronto has been recognized as the leading city for green roof installation in North America," said Jennifer Keesmaat, Chief Planner for the City of Toronto. "Our Green Roof Bylaw, in effect since 2010, has resulted in a new roof-scape for Toronto, cooling the city, helping to mitigate water runoff, while also adding beauty and biodiversity. A whole new industry has been spawned as a result of this initiative: it's a win-win-win!" 

The North American green roof industry experienced an estimated 10.3% growth in 2016 over 2015.

According to the 2016 survey, corporate members recorded 889 projects in 40 U.S. states and six Canadian provinces, installing 4,061,024 sq. ft. of green roofing.

Speaking of green roofs in Ontario, Dr. Liat Margolis at the University of Toronto is leading research into green roof performance. She’s recently released a four-page summary of her GRIT Lab’s work, "Data-Driven Design—Research into Green Roof Performance." 

GRHC is a non-profit, membership-based industry association dedicated to the growth and development of the green (vegetative) roof and wall industry in North America through education and advocacy.


Just one tree makes a difference

This screen shot of a computer visualization shows how wind moves through a neighborhood in Vancouver, Canada. When trees are lost, wind pressure on nearby buildings rises and so do heating costs as a result. Credit: University of British Columbia

Just one tree in the right location makes a difference. A single urban tree can moderate wind speeds, keeping pedestrians comfortable as they walk down the street, according to a new University of British Columbia (UBC) study. Losing a single tree can increase wind pressure on nearby buildings and drive up heating costs.

Using remote-sensing laser technology, the researchers created a detailed computer model of a Vancouver neighborhood, including every tree, plant and building. They then used computer simulation to determine how different scenarios - no trees, bare trees and trees in full leaf - affect airflow and heat patterns around individual streets and houses.

"We found that removing all trees can increase wind speed by a factor of two, which would make a noticeable difference to someone walking down the street. For example, a 15-km/h (9-mph) wind speed is pleasant, whereas walking in 30-km/h (18-mph) wind is more challenging," said lead author Marco Giometto, who wrote the paper as a postdoctoral fellow in civil engineering at UBC.

Trees also moderated the impact of wind pressure on buildings, particularly when it goes through small gaps in and between buildings.

"Wind pressure is responsible for as much as a third of a building's energy consumption. Using our model, we found that removing all the trees around buildings drove up the building's energy consumption by as much as 10% in winter and 15% in summer," Marco said.

The researchers compared the simulated scenarios against a decade of measured wind data from a 30-m (98-ft.) research tower in the same neighborhood. They discovered that even bare trees in the winter months can moderate airflow and wind pressure, contributing to a more comfortable environment.

"Even bare branches play a role. Deciduous trees, which shed their leaves every year, reduce pressure loading on buildings throughout the year - it's not only evergreens that are important in the city," said Dr. Marc Parlange, Civil Engineering.

"Information from such models can improve weather forecasts in order to predict the effects of a storm on a building and pedestrian level," said Dr. Andreas Christen, Geography. "It could also help city planners in designing buildings, streets and city blocks to maximize people's comfort and limit wind speed to reduce energy loss."
—from a University of British Columbia press release “Trees can make or break city weather.”

Effects of trees on mean wind, turbulence and momentum exchange within and above a real urban environment by M.G.Giometto, A.Christen, P.E.Egli, M.F.Schmid, R.T.Tooke, N.C.Coops, M.B.Parlange in Advances in Water Resources. 


Reader comments

The Green Agenda: Making the case for green

“Thank you so much for circulating this! The Ottawa Hospital is building a major new central building near green space and I was planning to lobby them to make it a flagship environmentally friendly building, integrated into the surrounding parkland. This will be a great resource!”
--Elizabeth Powles

“Great information! Thank you so much for sharing this.”
--Warren Gorowitz

A Guide for Versatile Carex

"We grow and use many different species of sedges in our watershed work here in West Michigan. They are great plants to work with, but few people know about them. There are many species and some are hard to ID, but even knowing a dozen or so that work well in native gardens or restoration projects can go a long ways. Deer and rabbits don't browse them because of their high silica content. Many are clump formers (Carex bromoides, C. interior, C. prairiea, etc.), while others spread rhizomatously (C. pellita, C. lacustris, C. buxbaumii, C. pensylvanica, etc.). And while some have pretty specific habitat requirements, others tolerate wide moisture/light variations (C. vulpinoidea, C. brevior, C. rosea, C. sparganioides, etc.). This is a very helpful table. We may develop something similar for the Michigan area.”
David Warners

(David, please let me know at when you develop your chart and we’ll get it out to NewTerrain readers. Thanks, Debbie)

“Really useful chart--I printed it out for my files.”
--Donna Wildearth

 General comment

“Many thanks for the excellent e-newsletter NewTerrain. Debbie does a great job of picking out important news -- news we need as we spread the word that plants and landscapes are "more than a pretty picture." The world is slowly waking up to the vital importance of landscapes and this is great information we can all use and spread to clients, vendors. Thanks!”
--Alison Peck



August 7-9: Urban Soil Summit 2.0, Los Angeles

A G3 Green Gardens Group seminar, the Urban Soil Summit 2.0 in Los Angeles will gather a diverse group of leading thinkers, scientists, concerned citizens, policy and change makers in an energetic and thought-provoking exchange about the science and actions necessary to connect us all to TERROIR, the Living Soil beneath our feet and a fundamental building block of human health and community resilience. 

August 9: Green Infrastructure and Air Quality

A webinar, "Exploring the Link between Green Infrastructure and Air Quality," will be hosted by U.S. EPA on August 9, 2017 from 1:00-2:30 p.m. EDT. Speakers from the EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation and Office of Research and Development will discuss innovative research into the multiple benefits of green infrastructure. Attending the webcast is free, but registration is required. While green infrastructure can help communities manage stormwater, using vegetated systems like green roofs and tree boxes can also help improve air quality and reduce urban heat island effects. These practices shade building surfaces, deflect radiation from the sun and release moisture into the atmosphere. Additionally, natural features -- such as urban forests and vegetative barriers planted near roads, in parking lots and around city centers -- assist in reducing particulate pollution and ground-level ozone, improving air quality and reducing cases of respiratory illness and other health impacts related to air pollution.

August 23-25: Farwest Show

Several sessions at the Farwest Show in Portland, Oregon, are geared to functional landscapes. They include: Soil Erosion Solutions, Aaron Guffey, Senior Conservationist, East Multnomah Soil and Water Conservation District; The Morton Arboretum's New Plant Development Program, Kim Shearer, Tree and Shrub Breeder, The Morton Arboretum; Critical Ecology; The Importance of Biodiversity in the Landscape, Rick Martinson, Owner, Wintercreek Restoration & Nursery; and Successful Sustainable Landscape Practices That Balance Environmental Needs & Customer Expectations, Ladd Smith, Co-Founder, In Harmony Sustainable Landscapes

September 13 Eco-tour: North Creek Nurseries

Join the Ecological Landscape Alliance for an Eco-tour: North Creek Nurseries Test and Trial Gardens. North Creek specializes in producing plugs and cuttings of perennials, ornamental grasses, ferns, vines and shrubs with an emphasis on Eastern U.S. native plants. Their Landscape Plugs provide planting solutions for ecological projects, including storm water management, soil stabilization, landscape restoration and habitat establishment. North Creek has focused on using sustainable and ecologically based practices for their 30 years in business. Owner Steve Castorani is a national leader in the nursery industry. You’ll enjoy seeing their production facilities and gather ideas from the tour of their trials and plantings.  

September 18-21: Seattle CitiesAlive

The CitiesAlive 15th Annual Green Roof and Wall Conference is themed “Building Resilience and Equity across Cascadia: People, Community and Places” in Seattle, Washington. The conference will highlight the necessity of green roofs and walls alongside Cascadia's unique characteristics as they contribute to community, place making and the resilience of the people through a variety of sessions and workshops.

In addition to the educational sessions, CitiesAlive will have a trade show and tours to some of Seattle's best green infrastructure projects. 

October 9-11: Pollinator Conservation, Traverse City

The second national conference related to pollinator conservation in ornamental plant production and urban landscapes, organized by Michigan State University and North Carolina State University, will be held at Park City Hotel, Traverse City, Michigan. The conference, geared to research, extension, industry, government and NGOs, fosters discussion about issues such as insecticide safety and habitat conservation.

Featured speakers and conference contributors include Laurence Packer, York University; Damon Hall, St. Louis University; Dan Potter, University of Kentucky; Mary Gardiner, The Ohio State University; and Mace Vaughan, Xerces Society Pollinator Conservation Program. Among the key issues that will be explored include:

  • Function of pollinators in urban landscapes
  • Pesticides and pollinators
  • Pollinator health and habitat in urban landscapes
  • Efforts, challenges and opportunities for protecting pollinators
  • Educating the public about the importance of protecting pollinators

October 16: Rain to Drain (ARCSA)

American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (ARCSA) annual meeting will be held at the Rosen Centre Hotel, Orlando, Florida.

October 17: Impact Conference: Building Sustainable Landscapes

Join the Illinois Landscape Contractors Association for the first Impact Conference: Building Sustainable Landscapes. Participants will learn how to combine building blocks that nature provided … soil, water and plants from nationally known experts including Keynote Larry Weaner who will present “Finding Your Niche: Establishing an Ecological Focus for Your Firm.” Sessions will show how to create vigorous, low-maintenance landscapes that endure over time.

October 26-27: NC State's 18th Vermiculture Conference

The James B. Hunt Jr. Library, NC State University, Raleigh, is the location for NC State's 18th Annual Vermiculture Conference.  The event is the only annual training in the world on commercial vermiculture and provides the tools to start or expand an earthworm or vermicompost production operation.

November 3: Turning a New Leaf

The Turning a New Leaf conference to be held at the Hilton Washington Dulles Airport in Herndon, Virginia, is organized by the folks at the Chesapeake Conservation Landscaping Council. It’s a full day that features presentations from industry leaders, innovators and experts. The event includes an EcoMarketplace where businesses can market their products and services, and provides multiple networking opportunities.

November 6-9: O&M of Stormwater Control Measures

The ASCE- EWRI Operation & Maintenance of Stormwater Control Measures Conference 2017 in Denver is an outgrowth of more than a decade of international low-impact development conferences. The conference will highlight advances in operation and maintenance approaches, advances in municipal program management and implementation, life cycle cost analysis, and lessons from the field. The meeting will address the growing need for state and municipal staff, regulators, consultants and more to share successes and lessons learned around stormwater operation and maintenance (O&M).

November 8-9: The Conservation Conference, Baltimore

The Conservation Conference by the Wildlife Habitat Council will be held at the Baltimore Marriott Waterfront. Join the conversation on the challenges and opportunities facing corporate conservation, and the emerging trends and best practices that will define its future. The meeting facilitates discussions important for corporate conservation, employee engagement and community relations. Gain valuable information and strategies to face the issues and challenges of corporate biodiversity programs, and learn techniques and best practices for successful wildlife and habitat management.

Archived soil-building webinar

Soil Profile Rebuilding: Rehabilitating Compacted Soils by Dr. Susan D. Day, Associate Professor of Urban Forestry, Virginia Tech by USU Extension Forestry on YouTube.


Worth reading

Urban biodiversity affects children's respiratory health by Morgan Lucey in The Lancet.

A Mississippi-Sized Area of Forest Disappeared in 2015 by Bobby Magill on Climate Central.

Traffic pollution prevents children’s brains from reaching their full potential by Anthony King in Horizon: the EU Research & Innovation magazine by the European Commission.

Soil filters out some emerging contaminants before reaching groundwater by Jeff Mulhollem for Penn State University.

New Research Further Proves Native Plants Offer More Bugs for Birds - The study found that oaks and other native trees deliver a major chunk of the Carolina Chickadee’s insect-intensive diet by Michelle Donahue for Audubon.

New full-hemisphere eBird animations on e-Bird by Audubon and the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

Featured Site: Columbia River, WA Community Mapping Created by Squilchuck3 for the Habitat Network by The Nature Conservancy and The CornellLab.

Researcher considers structural measures to protect cities from extreme heat events by Fabio Bergamin on

A stunning new smog-eating 'vertical forest tower' will feature luxury apartments and 300 species of plants by Leanna Garfield on Business Insider.

Keeping Fireflies from Blinking Out for Good by Colleen Beaty for the Wildlife Habitat Council

Plants Do Not Care How Rich You Are by Maryam Akbarian on The Nature of  Cities.

How to Plant a Tree in the Desert by Russell Shorto in The New Yorker.

This mayor won’t seek re-election to focus on climate change by Maria Gallucci on Mashable.

Climate Change Is Killing Us Right Now - The most obvious effect of global warming is not a doomsday scenario. Extreme heat is happening today and wreaking havoc on vulnerable bodies by Emily Atkin in New Republic.

Meet the best of the best: Chesapeake's Notable Yards winners announced by Elise Duncan in The Virginian-Pilot.

Water, Native Plants, and Southern California's Long History of Unsustainable Gardening by Emily Green for KCET about "Lost L.A.: Descanso Gardens."

Queen of forgotten bees: Minnetonka woman is on a mission to save native species by Mary Jane Smetanka in the Minneapolis Star Tribune.

Preventing Deer from Becoming Pests by Chris Gonzales for the Northeastern IPM Center.

Inside China’s Plan For A Massive Forest-Covered City by Adele Peters for FastCompany.

Politicians underestimate the value of green spaces in a great city like London by Rohan Silva in the London Evening Standard.

Metro Council Hears From Residents On Proposed Tree Ordinance by Kyeland Jackson on WFPL.

Resilient Parks, Resilient City: The role of green infrastructure and parks in creating more climate-adaptive cities by Jake Tobin Garrett on ParkPeople.

Cities turn to trees to beat the heat search for solutions - From California to Singapore, urban communities are embarking on tree planting efforts with the hope of to keeping rising temperatures in check by Eoin O'Carroll in the Christian Science Monitor.

Climate change: Al Gore gets inconvenient again, a review of “An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power” by Michael Mann in Nature.

Study projects deaths from heat and cold for 10 U.S. metros through 2090 by David Orenstein for Brown University.


Debbie Hamrick


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