Water & performance landscapes, Front lawn be gone and it’s a goat cam!

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News and commentary for emerging green infrastructure markets GrowerTalks MagazineGreen Profit Magazine

Wednesday, July 05, 2017

Debbie Hamrick Subscribe
 
New Terrain
COMING UP THIS WEEK:

Water in performance landscapes
Front lawn out; wildlife-friendly in
GI co-benefits calculator
Green roof goat cam
Mt. Cuba Monarda Trials
Detroit’s booming bumblebees
A city of green: “How to”
EPA’s GI in parks
Urban biodiversity
Reader comments 
Events
Worth Reading 

 


Notes on Water in the Performance Landscape

For me, the North Carolina Green Industry Council’s annual Water Symposium is like brain candy—a day of really great national-level presenters talking about water with perspective we rarely have the luxury to ponder from the field. This past seminar, on June 22, was no different. The theme: “Water in the Performance Landscape.” It’s impossible to share everything that the amazing lineup of speakers conveyed. Here I’ll provide a few highlights.

  • Where are you on the curve? Regulation is making choices for the industry and pushing water efficiency. For instance, California jurisdictions that won't allow the installation of a sprinkler nozzle that delivers greater than 1 in./hour. Getting ahead of the curve will position irrigation design/installers and landscape contractors for the future, said Warren Gorowitz, Ewing Irrigation. Allowing site runoff from irrigation is illegal, “you will be fined,” he said speaking from experience. Green infrastructure and sustainability are the industry’s disruption: “I think it’s where the new opportunities are.” Remember, “plants don’t waste water, people do.”
  • The vacant lot opportunity. Getting creative about how we see vacant urban space to help position green stormwater infrastructure is a great opportunity, said Kevin Nunnery, Biohabitats. He cited an earlier Brookings study that documented an average of 15% vacant property in 70 U.S. cities. Additionally, EPA and the U.S. Forest Service have recently issued white papers about the practice. Liberty, Kansas, and Baltimore, Maryland, are two cities mapping and assessing vacant property and greenspaces to help deal with heavier rainfall and subsequent flooding in the future.
  • Quantifying the performance landscape. “No matter how you define sustainability, you can’t achieve it without the landscape,” said Barbara Deutsch, Landscape Architecture Foundation. Infrastructure needs to include soil, water, parks and other living systems, she said. LAF’s online resources, especially the Landscape Performance Series, help practitioners create the case for landscapes and to tell the story from economic, ecological and human perspectives. The Landscape Performance Series is helping to create a monetizable case for landscapes. “People spend money for the things they see value in.”
  • How green is turf? About 5% to 10% of North Carolina’s land area is covered in turfgrass. According to NASA, currently 1.9% of the U.S. land is turf while 1.3% is paved. However, pavement is increasing rapidly, while turfgrass is declining. Grady Miller, NCSU turf scientist, made a case to use turf to manage water. He talked about high infiltration rates on turf planting on post-construction compacted soils after deep tilling and amendment with compost and lime. He also mentioned that correct mowing height, especially on residential lawns, practically eliminates the need for weed control. Recycling clippings back onto the lawn reduces fertilizer inputs. Turf can be water wise when water isn't available. Unfortunately, there's a segment of the public that wants green grass year-round, which has meant irrigation year-round. New grasses, like TifTuf, can withstand long-term drought and remain green.
  • RainScapes are Capital Improvement Projects. With an expectation that Montgomery County’s extensive installations of rain gardens and bioswales are to function for stormwater control for 20 years, they're now regarded and located within CIP. Rain gardens and bioswales are regarded as vitally important to the stormwater infrastructure of the county, said Ann English, Montgomery County DEP. About 70% of the county’s impervious surface is on residential property. As a result, Ann has become an expert in distributed stormwater practices and especially residential scale. “Neighbors love it when you stop flooding them,” she said. “We are basically asking residents to ‘recycle’ water on their property.” The county provides up to $2,500 per garden to do it. To maximize the voluntary use of vegetated rain gardens and bioswales, they've got to look good. To that end, compost was one of Ann’s big messages. Not only does addition of compost help plants look better, but it increases infiltration in clay soils. She said the plant industry needs to get real about plants for stormwater features and begin to understand how plants tolerate rapid water flow, warm water from pavement, compacted soils in stormwater berms, and sudden, extreme moisture followed by long periods of drought. Don’t forget salt tolerance. Plants are key; they increase consumer acceptance and desirability of the stormwater features. Plants also increase water infiltration rates. But ugly stormwater features generate complaints and can get political, she said. Using larger plants from the start is important; bigger plants can better handle inundations and they can establish faster. It’s got to look good. There’s also a new attitude about cost: Spend a bit more if it makes it look great. Montgomery County is also committed to spending maintenance dollars, she said. Currently, they're analyzing green and gray stormwater infrastructure and comparing maintenance costs. Aesthetically pleasing landscapes can be functional and Montgomery County is making that happen.
  • The case for water in the landscape. Equipping the green industry’s production, design, installation and maintenance army with vetted, factual information on the value of water in the landscape is critical to creating quality interactions with clients, institutions, regulators and politicians. That’s exactly what Zach Johnson, Colorado State University, and a team did in putting together The Hidden Value of Landscapes: Implications for Drought Planning. Colorado receives between 15 to 18 in. of rainfall a year. About 60% of the water that falls in the state leaves, Zach said. While Coloradans can only legally collect up to 100 gal. of rain water, landscapes can be designed to slow water down and infiltrate it at the site level. “We are doing more than being in the business of making it look pretty. We need to talk about it. We are in the health and well-being business.” He went on to talk about other landscape benefits. “We can make inroads with legislators,” he said.

Front Lawn Be Gone; Wildlife-Friendly Plants Trendy

Wildlife-friendly plants are trendy. In the photo: Juniperus virginiana.

According to Houzz Inc.’s 2017 Landscape Trends Study, slightly more than half of homeowners who are planting greenery (other than lawns) for a completed, current or planned outdoor project want plants that are insect/bird attractive (52% in 2017) and/or native (51% in 2017). The majority of those same homeowners also want plants to be low maintenance (76%) and to flower (69%). Edible plants are on the decline, says this Houzz survey.

Interestingly, 76% of survey respondents with lawns who are also performing outdoor renovations are changing their lawn. Houzz reports that bBack or side lawns are more likely to be replanted or expanded, while front lawns are much more likely to be removed altogether, with environmental concerns being a strong motivator.”

The survey was conducted of registered Houzz users in the United States in February and March.

Green Infrastructure Co-benefits Calculator

The Green Infrastructure Co-benefits Calculator, developed for use in the New York City region, incorporates a research generated evidence base to estimate costs and benefits. The calculator estimates costs and benefits based on user input. It’s meant to provide comparison of social, economic and environmental benefits against cost of green infrastructure.

Equations used to predict performance were based on New York City field measurements of temperature, pollinators, flowering, plant coverage, soil sampling and literature review of 100 quantitative studies. The tool allows the user to compare costs and benefits of different portfolios of green infrastructure projects using metrics like property value, municipal stormwater savings, jobs, pollution removed and social benefits.

The Green Roof Goat Cam

Chris Schultz shared this fun link with the Capitol Greenroofs group. For a few moments of levity, instead of watching a cat or guinea pig video, try the goat cam at Al Johnson's Swedish Restaurant & Butik in Sister Bay, Wisconsin. As Chris wrote, “Although it's somewhat gimmicky, they've been doing this for a long time as a trademark of sorts.” As you’ll see this time of year, goats on a grassed roof are quite a tourist attraction in this part of Door County. (The goats do not spend nights or winters on the roof.)

Mt. Cuba’s Monarda Trial Report

Check out Mt. Cuba’s new Monarda trial report generated from data gathered over three years from 2014-2016. This garden perennial staple is a pollinator and hummingbird favorite. Plants in the trial were studied for habit, vigor, flower display and powdery mildew resistance. It’s no surprise that Monarda fistulosa Claire Grace was the top performer. Others in the top 10: Dark Ponticum, Violet Queen, AChall, Judith’s Fancy Fuchsia, Colrain Red, Raspberry Wine, Purple Rooster, On Parade and Gardenview Scarlet.

For a great read on the specifics of the trial, Margaret Roach interviewed Mt. Cuba’s George Coombs and published it on A Way to Garden.com, Bee balm: make room for monarda, with Mt. Cuba's George Coombs.

Detroit’s Booming Bumblebees

A bumblebee pollinates a Campanula rapunculoides in Ann Arbor. Photo: Paul Glaum 

Urban depopulation may benefit some kinds of wildlife and vacant lots could be the reason why.

When University of Michigan students took a look at native bumblebee populations in southeastern Michigan cities, they found, surprisingly, that Detroit has more of the large-bodied bees than some surrounding, less urbanized locations. The reason: perhaps it’s because of the large amount of vacant or idle land in Detroit that may boost the populations by providing nesting sites and flower forage.

The students identified, more than 500 Bombus individuals from 10 species at 30 sites in southeast Michigan that included Dexter, Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti, Dearborn and Detroit.

"Sites within Detroit had higher Bombus abundance and diversity, despite their location in the densest urban landscape," according to the authors of “Big city Bombus: using natural history and land-use history to find significant environmental drivers in bumblebee declines in urban development,” published in the Royal Society Open Science. "Overall, these results have important implications for conservation of native bee populations and pollination services."

To help clarify the role of urbanization, the UM researchers sampled bumblebees at nature reserves and urban farms and gardens. The students mapped and profiled land cover types surrounding each of the 30 study sites. As a proxy for urban development they calculated cover of impervious surfaces—buildings, concrete parking structures, asphalt roads, etc.

Increased urbanization, as indicated by more impervious surface area, was tied to decreases in both the abundance and diversity of bumblebees outside Detroit. But that pattern didn't hold in Detroit, where urbanization seemed to be correlated with increased bumblebee abundance.

The Detroit site with the highest impervious surface coverage, an urban ag demonstration garden downtown, had nearly the same number of bumblebees captured as a nature preserve with the lowest impervious surface cover.

Why? Perhaps thousands of vacant residential properties may provide habitat. Vacant lots are often less frequently mowed and less likely to be treated with pesticides and herbicides.

The most abundant bumblebee sampled during the study was the common eastern bumblebee (72%), followed by the brown-belted bumblebee (11%) and the two-spotted bumblebee (9%).

Urbanization affected female and male bumblebees differently in the study. Bumblebee colonies consist of one reproductive female, many female workers that forage for nectar and pollen and bring it back to the colony and reproductive male drones whose only role is to mate.

By analyzing males and females separately, the researchers found that declines in overall bumblebee abundance and diversity with increasing urbanization were entirely driven by declines in female workers, while male abundance and diversity were unrelated to urbanization.

Cities matter. The urban landscape can be managed to support native bee conservation.—primarily from a University of Michigan press release

Big city Bombus: using natural history and land-use history to find significant environmental drivers in bumble-bee declines in urban development by Paul Glaum, Maria-Carolina Simao, Chatura Vaidya, Gordon Fitch and Benjamin Iulinao in Royal Society Open Science DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170156

EPA PDF: Green Infrastructure in Parks

Parks are great places to maximize the environment, economy and society. EPA’s new Green Infrastructure in Parks: A Guide to Collaboration, Funding, and Community Engagement includes recommendations on the types of projects that are most likely to attract positive attention and funding, and which provide a wide range of co-benefits in managing stormwater.

“How to” Create City System of Green Spaces

The new TKF Foundation report Nearby Nature for Human Health: Sites to Systems, by Dr. Kathleen L. Wolf, Ph.D., University of Washington and Weston Brinkley, Seattle Trails Alliance provides "how to" insights on creating a system of city greenspaces.

The evidence base for why it’s good for people to interact with nature spans nearly 40 years. The more nature the better when it comes to health. The report offers suggestions for how city officials, urban planners and residents can integrate nature through green infrastructure systems into the city.

The key message: Creating linked systems doesn't necessarily require a huge amount of resources.

Cities can leverage vacant lots into small parks and layering benefits with green streets and stormwater bioswales that can accommodate people to offer co-benefits as micro-parks.

The authors present ideas for how a greenspace system may work with examples like "Green Necklace," a linear, connected series of greenspaces or "Hub and Spoke," spaces that may be located in outlying neighborhoods that flow to a large park or open space that functions as a hub.

Urban Nature: What Kinds of Plants and Wildlife Flourish in Cities?

Two vacant lots where row homes once stood in Baltimore, Maryland. Each plot was cleared and seeded with native species. Even after one year on these poor soils, native plants established.

Dr. Christopher Swan, University of Maryland, discusses the research he and his team are conducting about what plants and animals flourish best in urban settings. (This item originally appeared in The Conversation.)

Biodiversity refers to the variety of all living things on Earth, but people often have very specific ideas of what it means. If you run an online search for images of biodiversity, you're likely to find lots of photos of tropical rainforests and coral reefs.

Those ecosystems are invaluable, but biodiversity also exists in many other places. More than half of the people on Earth live in cities, and that number is growing, so it's especially important to understand how biodiversity patterns occur in our man-made environments.

As an ecologist specializing in urban systems, I spend a lot of time investigating biodiversity in parks, residential areas and abandoned zones in and around the city of Baltimore. My main interests are seeing how urban dwellers invest in biodiversity, which species persist in cities and what kinds of biodiversity can thrive in green spaces.

In spite of the substantial environmental changes that humans have caused in cities, research shows that they still contain many forms of life. And we can develop and maintain habitat to support them.

Human activities such as farming and building roads disturb the environment. This changes habitats, causes plants and animals to move, and alters biodiversity patterns.

In cities, many of these shifts are obvious. Cats and coyotes are now the top predators in many urban areas, perhaps replacing species that dominated before these areas were settled. Humans have introduced exotic species, such as tree of heaven, and pests such as the emerald ash borer. And our living patterns have promoted eruptive growth of some species, such as white-tailed deer.

It's common to assume that few other species remain in disturbed urban environments. But in fact, there are many pockets of biodiversity in and around cities, such as frogs living in stormwater detention ponds and trees in restored streamside forests. Landscapes that people create in and around their homes support many ornamental herbaceous and woody plant species.

Our research group works to understand the relationship between people and urban biodiversity patterns. The most prominent feature of the urban environment is that it's fragmented into many small zones. Human activity creates more patches of smaller size and greater edge lengths between types of habitats than we would expect to see in undisturbed areas.

This benefits species that thrive at edges, like white-tailed deer and nuisance vines, but harms others that require larger interior habitats, such as certain birds. As human activities create a more fragmented environment, it becomes increasingly important to create linkages between natural areas, such as preserved forests, to maintain populations and their biodiversity.

Humans also modify dispersal patterns. We place preferred plants in our yards and gardens, transplant wild shrubs from forests to suburban yards, and trap nuisance animals, such as beavers, and relocate them to forests.

Work from our research group has successfully related people’s management practices to understand how species are gained or lost from one location to the next. This concept, which we call “species turnover,” is a major way in which biodiversity increases in cities. Where people make many different types of choices, we've found that the trees people manage change a lot. This tells us that what one person sees as valuable differs from another’s, which increases biodiversity in these areas. In “ignored” or less-managed areas, such as vacant land, we see a less diverse mix of species on average.

Ecologists can also understand biodiversity in cities by studying how humans have altered and then abandoned some areas, and how plants and animals have responded. Such human legacies are profound in old cities like Baltimore.

Our research group has studied these impacts on patches of land where buildings once stood. There are more than 14,000 vacant lots in Baltimore where houses have been razed, which adds up to a lot of habitat.

We've found that buildings’ footprints have very different soils from the areas around them that once were backyards. Footprint soils are compact and comprise mainly building rubble, while backyards have healthier soils. Although these habitats are close together, they support different plant communities. Plants growing on building footprints tend to be similar, while there's very high species turnover in former backyards.

Every species has traits, such as a plant’s nitrogen fixation rate and flower color. These characteristics support the services that the species can offer – for example, providing habitat for songbirds. As cities move toward more green practices, knowing about species’ traits can help planners choose which plants, animals, birds and insects to support.

In West Baltimore, my research group has cleared and seeded vacant lots with different mixes of native plants that reflect different traits to learn which species combinations can confer the most ecosystem services. In urban areas, valuable ecosystem services include supporting bees and other pollinators, and improving soil quality.

We've found that native plant species can become established and persist even on poor urban soils. Working with local high school students, we've carried out pollinator surveys over two years, which show that these plants support more abundant and more diverse communities of pollinators, including bumblebees and butterflies. Over the next five to 10 years, we plan to expand this work across 65 plots on vacant land so that we can understand the full range of ecosystem services that native plants provide.

Residents who live near our research plots are happy to see areas that were unmanaged and largely neglected turn green. Even small “pocket parks” can brighten communities.

We have many other questions about urban biodiversity. How do city dwellers living in cities think about biodiversity? What traits of different animals and plants do people find attractive, and do those traits provide desirable ecosystem services? By analyzing these issues, we can learn more about which animals and plants do the most to enhance city life and how we can help them thrive here. 

Reader Comments

We Need Milkweed: Billions More

“We do need more milkweed, as well as those important late-season blooming nectar plants to help fuel the migration to Mexico, as well as providing fat stores for the winter.

“In regard to the milkweed, it would be extremely helpful if more mainstream garden centers, and not just native plant nurseries, stocked several different types of milkweed. Many are beautiful plants that support a number of pollinators and what a garden center does can go a long way towards changing the ‘weed’ reputation that this family of plants has been given.

There are millions of backyard gardeners, and if even half of them were to grow some milkweed in their gardens, collectively that would do much to help increase the necessary habitat for this iconic insect. People want to grow it and can't find it.”
--Kylee Baumle, author of "THE MONARCH: Saving Our Most-Loved Butterfly"

 “One of the problems is that people are planting non-native milkweed species. In Southern California, people are planting Asclepias currasavica (tropical milkweed), which is not native to our area. This species can cause a fatal disease to Monarchs. See the Xerces.org web site.

“In addition, A. currasavica is a perennial. This messes up the Monarch's migration instinct." http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/01/plan-save-monarch-butterflies-backfires
--TCremer

Lawn care = Aquatic ecosystem health

“Thanks for noting that both N & P are problematic, not just P!

“However, please add pesticides to the list of contaminants. Stan Dodson's 2009 paper concluded that the aquatic biota in Madison-area stormwater ponds was depleted where just 30% of the urban watershed was covered in lawns. While he didn't have data on pesticides, he argued that he could rule out nutrients. There must be more recent work on this topic, but this might suffice to expand the blame for biodiversity loss in downstream waters. Stanley I. Dodson (2008) Biodiversity in southern Wisconsin storm-water retention ponds: Correlations with watershed cover and productivity, Lake and Reservoir Management, 24:4, 370-380, DOI: 10.1080/07438140809354847
-- Joy Zedler 

We Are Still In

“The Paris agreement is a JOKE. It has nothing to do with the environment and a lot about wealth transfer through taxes. This is from an old rural hippy who has been environmentally friendly since the 1970s. Whenever government gets involved, that is a wonderful excuse for incompetence. But it does help soothe a lot of city dwellers consciences. Read, Research, Think and then ACT!”

“These politicians should all be individually scrutinized about their own personal practices first! “
--Esther Walker 

 “Proof that big government isn't the answer. Capitalism at its finest. Thank you, conservatives!”
-- Amanda Beck   

Events

July 15-18: Cultivate‘17

This year’s Cultivate’17 in Columbus, Ohio, at the Columbus Convention Center features a number of sessions of interest to NewTerrain readers: Hoffman Nursery’s Shannon Currey is speaking on multiple occasions about the use of sedges and grasses in GSI (and GSI plant markets in general) and using sedges and grasses as mulch replacements; North Creek’s Claudia West, co-author of "Planting in a Post Wild World," is speaking about "Successful Planting Strategies for Green Infrastructure;" Hayk Khachatryan is speaking about "Attracting Pollinators and Eco-Friendly Homeowners" and "Targeting Consumers with Pollinator Related Promotions;" Jim Kleinwachter will speak on "Utilizing Native Plants in the Landscape;" Terrapin Bright Green’s Jonce Walker and Plant Solutions’ Joe Zazzera will talk about "Your Brain on Nature;" and Lorence Oki will talk about" How Much Water do Landscape Plants Really Need?" Additionally, there are sessions on green walls and wall systems, and on local food/urban ag.

July 18 & 19: UC Landscape Plant Irrigation Trials Open House

The UC Landscape Plant Irrigation Trials evaluates plant material to identify low water use plants for California. Each trial is for a two-year period, irrigating plants regularly during the first summer after planting, then assessing performance during the second growing season on three irrigation treatments corresponding to the Water Use Classification of Landscape Species (WUCOLS) levels of Low, Moderate and High. Growth and quality ratings are collected by researchers during this period. Participants in the Trial Open House will record quality ratings of species in the plantings. You'll be seeing these plants in the hottest time of year in the middle of the irrigation treatment cycle. Participation is for landscape and nursery professionals and UC Master Gardeners only.

July 21: Woody Plant Conference, Swarthmore

The 20th annual Woody Plant Conference at Swarthmore College focuses on great woody plants for the Mid-Atlantic and how to use them in the landscape. Featured speakers include: Nathan Erwin, Director of the Insect Zoo at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, will speak about plant pollination and some unlikely pollinators; Tim Boland, Executive Director at Polly Hill Arboretum, will discuss his experiences and goals for collecting woody plants in the U.S.; and Peter Del Tredici, Senior Research Scientist Emeritus at Arnold Arboretum, who will focus on understanding the impacts of urbanization on plants in both native and designed landscapes. 

August 1, 2017: Grow Native! Workshop in the Field

Full day of native landscaping topics will be run concurrently at the MU Turf and Landscape Field Day at the University of Missouri South Farm Research Center in Columbia, Missouri. Topics and speakers include: Native Landscapes within Golf Courses -- Isaac Breuer,  A.L. Gustin Golf Course; Oak selection and landscape applications -- Wayne Lovelace, Forrest Keeling Nursery; and Trees, Forests and Landscapes -- Bill Spradley; Agroforestry Applications for Urban Landscapes --opportunities for native edibles in the landscape: elderberry, Aronia, paw paw and more, Gregory Ormsby Mori, MU Center for Agroforestry, Bo Young, MU student, and Andy Thomas, MU Southwest Center; Seeded Native Landscapes--installation, establishment and care strategies -- Scott Woodbury, Shaw Nature Reserve; and The Native Landscape Care Calendar-- what and when to engage care practices -- Bill Ruppert and Scott Woodbury.

August 7-9: Urban Soil Summit 2.0, Los Angeles

A G3 Green Gardens Group seminar, the Urban Soil Summit 2.0 in Los Angeles will gather a diverse group of leading thinkers, scientists, concerned citizens, policy and change makers in an energetic and thought-provoking exchange about the science and actions necessary to connect us all to TERROIR, the Living Soil beneath our feet and a fundamental building block of human health and community resilience. 

 September 18-21: Cities Alive Seattle

CitiesAlive: 15th Annual Green Roof and Wall Conference will highlight the necessity of green roofs and walls in Cascadia alongside the region's unique characteristics as they contribute to community, place making and the resilience of the people in a variety of sessions and workshops. Tours will be offered to a number of locations, including the Bellevue City Hall Green Roof, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation green roof, Freeway Park, High Point Community and the UpGarden P-Patch Community Garden.

October 9-11: Pollinator Conservation, Traverse City

The second national conference related to pollinator conservation in ornamental plant production and urban landscapes, organized by Michigan State University and North Carolina State University, will be held at Park City Hotel, Traverse City, Michigan. The conference, geared to research, extension, industry, government and NGOs, fosters discussion about issues such as insecticide safety and habitat conservation.

October 16: Rain to Drain (ARCSA)

American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (ARCSA) annual meeting will be held at the Rosen Centre Hotel, Orlando, Florida.

October 26-27: 18th Annual Vermiculture Conference

The James B. Hunt Jr. Library, NC State University in Raleigh is the location for NC State's 18th Annual Vermiculture Conference. The event is the only annual training in the world on commercial vermiculture and provides the tools to start or expand an earthworm or vermicompost production operation.

November 3: Turning a New Leaf

The Turning a New Leaf conference to be held at the Hilton Washington Dulles Airport in Herndon, Virginia, is organized by the folks at the Chesapeake Conservation Landscaping Council. It’s a full day that features presentations from industry leaders, innovators and experts. The event includes an EcoMarketplace where businesses can market their products and services, and participate in multiple networking opportunities.

November 8-9: The Conservation Conference, Baltimore

The Conservation Conference by the Wildlife Habitat Council will be held at the Baltimore Marriott Waterfront. Join the conversation on the challenges and opportunities facing corporate conservation, and the emerging trends and best practices that will define its future. The meeting facilitates discussions important for corporate conservation, employee engagement and community relations. Gain valuable information and strategies to face the issues and challenges of corporate biodiversity programs, and learn techniques and best practices for successful wildlife and habitat management.

Worth reading

Best,



Debbie Hamrick

NewTerrain


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